Frida 12.8 Released ∞release
Get ready for an exciting new release. This time around we’re giving some long overdue love to our Stalker engine. It’s been around for roughly ten years, but it wasn’t until Frida 10.5 in late 2017 that we started unleashing its massive potential.
Up until now we were able to Stalker.follow() existing threads and not only observe them, but also mutate their instruction streams any way we’d like. It could also be combined with Interceptor to instrument the current thread between strategic points. This allowed us to build tools such as AirSpy.
But, what if we want to Stalker.follow() a NativeFunction call? This may seem really simple, but reentrancy makes this really hard. It’s easy to end up following execution inside e.g. our private heap, and end up needing to allocate memory for the instrumentation itself… all kinds of fun scenarios that are mind-boggling to reason about.
The way we dealt with this was to teach Stalker to exclude certain memory ranges, so that if it sees a call going to such a location it will simply emit a call instruction there instead of following execution. So what we did was to automatically exclude frida-agent’s own memory range, and that way we didn’t have to deal with any of the reentrancy madness.
We also took care to special-case attempts to Stalker.follow() the current thread, so that we queued that work until we’re about to leave our runtime and transition back into user code (or our main loop, in the case of the JS thread).
That still left the big unanswered question of how to use Stalker in conjunction with NativeFunction. We can now finally put that behind us:
By setting the
traps: 'all' option on the NativeFunction, it will re-activate
Stalker when called from a thread where Stalker is temporarily paused because
it’s calling out to an excluded range – which is the case here because all of
frida-agent’s code is marked as excluded.
We can also achieve the same goal for Objective-C methods:
And also for Java methods on Android:
Yay. That said, these examples are barely scratching the surface of what’s possible using Stalker. One of the really cool use-cases is in-process fuzzing, which frida-fuzz is a great example of. There’s also a bunch of other use-cases, such as reversing, measuring code coverage, fault injection for testing purposes, hooking inline syscalls, etc.
So that’s the main story of this release. Would like to thank @andreafioraldi for the great bug-reports and help testing these tricky changes.
One cool new feature worth mentioning is the new
ArrayBuffer.wrap() API, which
allows you to conveniently and efficiently access memory regions as if they were
We now also allow you to access the backing store of any ArrayBuffer, through
unwrap() method on ArrayBuffer. An example use-case for this is when
using an existing module such as frida-fs where you get an ArrayBuffer that
you then want to pass to native code.
Changes in 12.8.0
- Stalker reactivation working properly.
- Stalker thread lifetime properly handled. Will also no longer crash when following a thread to its death on i/macOS.
- Safer garbage collection logic in Stalker.
- Making mistakes in the Stalker transform callback which ends up throwing a JS exception now results in Stalker.unfollow(), so the error doesn’t get swallowed by the process crashing.
- Robust support for Stalker transform calling unfollow().
- Stalker support for older x86 CPUs without AVX2 support.
- Support for disabling automatic Stalker queue drain.
- NativeFunction is better at handling exceptions through the brand new Interceptor unwinding API.
- Java and ObjC APIs to specify NativeFunction options for methods through clone(options), and blocks through the second argument to ObjC.Block().
- ObjC class and protocol caching logic finally works. Thanks @gebing!
- The prebuilt Python 3 extension for Windows finally supports all Python 3 versions >= 3.4 on Windows, just like on the other platforms.
- ArrayBuffer wrap() and unwrap().
- DebugSymbol API has better error-handling on Linux/Android.
- Java integration no longer crashes in recompileExceptionClearForArm64() in system processes on Android 10.
- GumJS devkit on i/macOS supports V8 once again.
Changes in 12.8.1
- The CModule Stalker integration is back in business.
Changes in 12.8.2
- Thumb IT blocks are finally relocated correctly. This means we are able to hook a lot more functions on 32-bit ARM targets, e.g. Android. Thanks @bigboysun!
Changes in 12.8.3
- Java.ClassFactory.get() introduced to be able to work with multiple class loaders without worrying about colliding class names. This means that assigning to the loader property is now considered deprecated. We still keep it around for backwards compatibility, but using it alongside the new API is not supported.
- Java.enumerateLoadedClasses() also provides class handles and not just names.
- The JNI GetByteArrayRegion() function is now part of the Env wrapper. Thanks @iddoeldor!
Changes in 12.8.4
- Internal hooks no longer result in crashes on Linux/ELF targets when PLT/GOT entries haven’t been warmed up.
Changes in 12.8.5
- Python bindings finally provide properly encoded error messages on Python 2.x.
Changes in 12.8.6
- Android linker detection is finally working again in sandboxed processes. This was a regression introduced in 12.7.8. Kudos to @DaveManouchehri for reporting and helping track this one down!
Changes in 12.8.7
- Our Node.js IOStream bindings received two critical stability improvements. Turns out the cancellation logic had a race-condition that resulted in the cancellable not always being used. There was also a bug in the teardown logic that could result in a stream being closed before all I/O operations had completed. Kudos to @mrmacete for these awesome fixes!
Changes in 12.8.8
- Gadget no longer deadlocks on Android/Linux during early instrumentation use-cases where Gadget’s entrypoint gets called with dynamic linker lock(s) held. Due to Exceptor now using dlsym() to avoid running into PLT/GOT issues during early instrumentation, we need to ensure that Exceptor gets initialized from the entrypoint thread, and not the Gadget thread.
Changes in 12.8.9
Changes in 12.8.10
- Gadget is once again able to run on iOS without a debugger present. This was a regression introduced in 12.8.8. Kudos to @ddzobov for reporting!
Changes in 12.8.11
- The i/macOS Exceptor’s API hooks no longer perform an OOB write when a user of the Mach exception handling APIs only requests a subset of the handlers. Such a user would typically be a crash reporter or analytics framework.
- Electron prebuilds are now provided for v8 (stable) and v9 (beta). We no longer provide prebuilds for v7.
Changes in 12.8.12
- Massively overhauled Android Java integration, now using Proxy objects and CModule to lazily resolve things. And no more eval-usage to dynamically generate method and field wrappers – i.e. less memory required per wrapper generated. All of these changes reduce memory usage and allow Java.use() to complete much faster.
- Android Java integration provides uncensored access to methods and fields on Android versions that attempt to hide private APIs, i.e. Android >= 9.
- Way faster Android device enumeration. No longer running any adb shell commands to determine the device name when the locally running ADB daemon is new enough (i.e. ADB >= sometime during 2017).
- We’ve finally eliminated a long-standing memory leak on Linux-based OSes, affecting restricted processes such as zygote and system_server on newer versions of Android. This was a bug in our logic that garbage-collects thread-local data shortly after a given thread has exited. The mechanism that determines that the thread has indeed finished exiting would fail and never consider the thread gone. This would result in more and more garbage accumulating, with a longer and longer collection of garbage to iterate over. So not only would we be spending increasingly more time on futile GC attempts, we would also be eating CPU retrying a GC every 50 ms.
- The Python bindings allow obtaining a file-descriptor from a Cancellable in order to integrate it into event loops and other poll()-style use-cases. Worth noting that frida-tools 7.0.1 is out with a major improvement built on this: The CLI tools no longer delay for up to 500 ms before exiting. So short-lived programs like frida-ls-devices and frida-ps now feel very snappy.
- Duktape source-map handling now also works with scripts loaded by the REPL – where the inline source-map isn’t the last line of the script due to the REPL appending its own code. This means stack-traces always contain meaningful filenames and line numbers.
- Better Linux process name heuristics in enumerate_processes().
Changes in 12.8.13
- Java.performNow() is back in working order.
- Python bindings’ setup.py now looks for a local .egg before attempting to download one, and expects the download to complete within two minutes. Kudos to @XieEDeHeiShou for these nice improvements!
Changes in 12.8.14
- The iOS Simulator is now properly supported, both in Gadget form and attaching to a running Simulator process from macOS. Kudos to @insitusec for helping fix these issues!
- Gadget now also looks for its .config in the directory above on iOS, but only if its parent directory is named “Frameworks”. Kudos to @insitusec for the suggestion!
Changes in 12.8.15
- Brand new feature-complete support for iOS/arm64e, including new NativePointer methods: sign(), strip(), blend().
- Latest iOS Unc0ver jailbreak is now supported. Kudos to @mrmacete for the pull-request, and @Pwn20wnd for the assistance! ❤️
- Improved support for the Chimera jailbreak, making sure its pspawn_payload-stg2.dylib is initialized. Thanks @mrmacete!
- The i/macOS injector no longer fails when an agent entrypoint returns instantly.
- Better error message about needing Gadget for jailed iOS.
- Improved error-handling in the Windows injector to avoid crashing the target process when our DLL injection fails. Kudos @dasraf9!
- Support for injection into live newborn targets on i/macOS, and also no longer treating suspended processes as needing to be prepared for injection, regardless of whether they actually need it.
- Improved iOS fault tolerance, handling frontmost iOS app name query failing.
- Improved Android fault tolerance, handling zygote and system_server processes dying without having to restart frida-server.
- Now able to launch frida-server during boot on Android 10, as LD_LIBRARY_PATH no longer interferes with the spawning of frida-helper-32. Kudos to @enovella for helping track this one down!
- No more infinite loop when failing to handle SIGABRT on UNIXy platforms.
- We now support nested signals in Exceptor’s POSIX backend. Kudos @bannsec!
- Proper handling of invalid Windows ANSI strings. Thanks, @clouds56!
- Java.perform() working properly again on Android < 5.
- Improved varargs-handling in NativeFunction, now promoting varargs smaller than int. Thanks for reporting, @0x410c!
Changes in 12.8.16
- Large CModule instances now working on iOS systems with 16K pages. Kudos to @mrmacete for discovering and fixing this long-standing issue!
- Stalker also works in arm64 processes on iOS/arm64e. Kudos to @AeonLucid for reporting and helping track this one down!
Changes in 12.8.17
- Support for injection into live newborn targets on i/macOS turned out to cause regressions, so we’ve reverted it for now. Specifically, notifyd on iOS 12.4 is a case where libSystemInitialized is not getting set. Need to dig deeper to figure out why, so decided to walk back this logic for now.
Changes in 12.8.18
- New and improved Java.scheduleOnMainThread() to allow calling APIs such as getApplicationContext(). Kudos to @giantpune for reporting!
- Ability to hook CriticalNative methods on newer versions of Android. Kudos to @abdawoud for reporting!
Changes in 12.8.19
- Scripts are now properly cleaned up if destroyed without first being loaded. This ensures that ultimately when the script core is disposed, it in turn disposes its reference to the Exceptor. Failing to do so causes indefinite hang when attaching after detaching in presence of unloaded scripts, due to the Exceptor thread remaining in the target process. Kudos to @mrmacete for discovering and fixing this long-standing issue!
Changes in 12.8.20
- The remove_remote_device() API is back in working order. This was an unfortunate regression introduced in 12.7.17. Thanks for reporting, @CodeColorist!